Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon

Atha prathamaṃ prakaraṇam

Technical Details
  • Text Version:
    Romanized
  • Input Personnel:
    DSBC Staff
  • Input Date:
    2007
  • Proof Reader:
    Miroj Shakya
  • Supplier:
    Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods
  • Sponsor:
    University of the West
upāyahṛdayam|



atha prathamaṃ prakaraṇam|



etādvādāvabodhena vādadharmāvabodhanam|

vistareṇa ca gambhīro'yamartho'trābhidhīyate||



vādo na kartavyaḥ| kasmāt ? prāyeṇa hi vādakārakāṇāṃ sañjātavipulakrodhamadamattānāṃ svayaṃ vibhrāntacittānāṃ manaso'natimṛdutā parapāpaprakāśakatvaṃ svapāṇḍityānumodakatvañcetyādayo doṣā budhirnirbhatsitāḥ| tasmādāryajanā asaṃkhyeyopāyairvivādachedakāstatparihāraprītāśca viṣabhājanaparityāgādiva| vādakārakāṇāñcāntaraṃ vastuto mṛdvapi paraṃ bahirbahudoṣaṃ dṛśyate| tasmātsvahitaparahitābhilāṣiṇaite vivādadharmāḥ praheyāḥ|



atrocyate| maivaṃ, naiṣa vādaprārambhaḥ paribhavalābhakhyātyartho'pi tu sulakṣaṇadurlakṣaṇopadeśecchayaiva vādasya prārambhaḥ|



yadīha loke vādo na bhavet, mugdhānāṃ bāhulyaṃ syāt| tataśca laukikamithyājñānakuśalatāsahacarabhrāntisamubhdūtakukarmabhiḥ saṃsāradurgatiḥ sadarthahāniśca|



vādāvagame tu svayaṃ sulakṣadurlakṣaṇaśūnyalakṣaṇaparijñānatvāt sarve mārāstīrthikā mithyādṛṣṭimanuṣyāśca viheṭhanāsamarthā apratibandhakārāśca| tasmātsattvahitecchayeha loke saddharmasya pracārecchayā ca mayaiṣa samyagvāda ārabhyate|



yathāsraphalaparipuṣṭikāmena tat(phala)parirakṣaṇārthaṃ bahirbahutīkṣṇakaṇṭakanikaravinyāsaḥ kriyate|



vādārambho'pi tathaivādhunā saddharmmarakṣaṇecchayā na tu khyātilābhāya| yaduktaṃ (bhavatā) pūrvaṃ [eṣa vādo] vivādapravardhaka iti| tadayuktam| dharmarakṣaṇārthameva hi vāda ārabdhavyaḥ|



āha| yaduktaṃ pūrvaṃ bhavatā yadyetaṃ vādaṃ jānīyādvādadharmānavagacchediti vaktavyametasya lakṣaṇam|



atrocyate| tasya vādasyāṣṭavidho bhedaḥ| tadarthagatiprajñānasāmarthye paravādāvagamaḥ, yathā dhānyamuptvā siktā codakena tasya puṣṭiḥ samṛddhiśca sādhyate| tṛṇādyanutsāraṇe tūṭkṛṣṭāṅkurā na jāyante| yadi kaścidetamaṣṭāvidhaṃ [vādaṃ] śṛṇuyādarthantu tasya nāvagacchettadā [tasya] sarveṣu vādeṣu saṃśayo bhavet| yadi kaścidetamaṣṭavidhamarthaṃ parijānīyānniyatameva sarvavādadharmāvagame samartho bhavet|



āha| etadvādaparijñānādeva vādadharmā niyatamavagamyanta iti (bhavato)ktam| atha tīrthikānāṃ vādadharmāḥ santi na vā| atrocyate santyeva| yathā vaiśeṣikāṇāṃ ṣaṭ padārthāḥ| dravyaṃ guṇaḥ sāmānyaṃ viśeṣaḥ karma samavāyaścetyādikavādadharmeṣu svavagateṣvapi parasūtraśāstrāṇāmapratītiḥ|



ato vādanayapratipādanārthaṃ prapañcocchedanārthañcaite 'ṣṭavidhā gambhīrāḥ sadvādadharmāḥ saṃkṣepato mayā kathyante| dṛṣṭāntaḥ siddhānto vākyapraśaṃsā vākyadoṣaḥ pramāṇaṃ prāptakālavākyaṃ hetvābhāso vākchalam|



dṛṣṭānto dvividhaḥ| saṃpūrṇadṛṣṭānta āśiṃkadṛṣṭāntaśca| siddhānto niścitārtha iti| vākyapraśaṃsā vākyasyārthānugamaḥ| vākyadoṣo vākyasya yuktivyatyayaḥ| pramāṇaṃ dvividhajñāpakaheturutpattiheturvyañjanahetuśca| prāptakāla vākyam| yathā yadi pūrvaṃ dhātvāyatanāni vadet| paścāttu pañcaskandhān tadaitadaprāptakālamityucyate| prāptakālavākyaṃ tu vākyakramāvagame| hetvābhāso yathā marīcābudakābhāsaḥ, na tu vastuta udakam| yadi vādī svalaṅkṛtairvākyairudakamiti vadettadā sa hetvābhāsaḥ| vākchalaṃ yathā| navakambala ityukte taddūṣayan vadet| vastraṃ na kālaḥ kathaṃ nava ityucyate| iti chalam| evaṃ samāmato'ṣṭavidho'rthaḥ samākhyātaḥ| idānīṃ krameṇa tallakṣaṇāni vistareṇa vyākhyāsyāmaḥ|



āha| ukto bhavatā pūrvaṃ dṛṣṭāntaḥ| kastāvadupāyo dṛṣṭāntasya sthāpane| atrocyate| dṛṣṭāntavacanaṃ hi yatra pṛthagjanānāmāryāṇāñca buddhisāmyaṃ tadā vaktavyam| yathā cittaṃ cañcalaṃ drutavāyuvat| sarveṣāṃ janānāṃ vāyucāñcalyasya pratīteḥ| tadā cittasthiratāyā niścayaḥ| apratītau dṛṣṭāntālābhaḥ| āha| kasmātsadartha eva nocyate'pi tu dṛṣṭāntaḥ| atrocyate| dṛṣṭāntavacanaṃ hi sadarthadyotanārtham|



āha| bhavatā pūrvamuktam pṛthagjanānāmāryāṇāñca buddhisāmyadṛṣṭāntalābha iti| kiṃ sāmyaṃ ko vā viśeṣaḥ| atrocyate| pūrvavat| vāyudṛṣṭāntasya sāmyamityucyate| āryāṇāṃ nirvāṇaprāptiḥ pṛthagjanānāṃ tvaprāptirayaṃ viśeṣa ityucyate|



āha| uktaṃ dṛṣṭāntalakṣaṇam| kiṃ punaḥ siddhāntalakṣaṇam| atrocyate| sādhyasya hetubhirvistareṇa sthāpanaṃ nirṇayaśca| etatsiddhāntalakṣaṇam|



āha| siddhāntadharmāḥ kiyantaḥ| atrocyate| catvāraḥ| sarvasamaḥ sarvabhinna ādau samaḥ paścābhdinna ādau bhinnaḥ paścātsamaśca| āha| adhunā bhavataitāni catvāri lakṣaṇāni vyākhyātavyāni|



atrocyate| arthasthāpanamicchatā caturvidhaṃ jñānamāśrayitavyam| kiṃ taccaturvidham| pratyakṣamanumānamupamānamāgamaśca|



sarvasamo yathā, (vādī vadeda-)ātmātmīyañca na vidyete, prativadyapi vadedātmātmīyañca na vidyeta ityayaṃ sarvasamaḥ| sarvabhinno yathā, (vādī vadet) pṛthagiti prativādī tu vadedekamityayam sarvabhinnaḥ| ādau samaḥ paścābhdinno yathā, (vādī vadet) sarvaṃ dṛṣṭadharmaṃ sat| ātmā punarapratyakṣo'pi sag| prativādī vadedyatpratyakṣadharmakaṃ tadeva saditi vaktavyam| ātmā cedapratyakṣaḥ kathaṃ san| anumānena cedātmā sanniti tarhi pratyakṣapūrvakamanumānamiti| apratyakṣadharmaka ātmā kathamanumīyate| yadi punarupamānenātmā sanniti, atha sādharmyapūrvakamupamānamityātmā kenopamīyate| yadi tvāgamenātmā siddha ityucyate tadayuktam| durbodhaṃ hi sūtram| kutracitsanniti kutracidasanniti kathaṃ tatpratītirityayamādau samaḥ paścābhdinnaḥ| ādau bhinna paścātsamo yathā, (vādī vadeda)ātmātmīyañca na vidyete| prativādī tu vadedastyātmā, asti puruṣaḥ| nirvāṇābhyupagamastrūbhayorvādinoḥ| ayamucyata bhinnaḥ paścātsamaḥ|



api cāparimitāni lakṣaṇāni siddhāntasya, tadyathā dvādaśa nidānāni, duḥkhaṃ, samudayaḥ, nirodhaḥ, mārgaḥ saptatriṃśatpakṣāḥ, catvāri śrāmaṇyaphalānītyādayo dharmā buddhasya samyagarthā ityucyante|



sandhyāpūjā, balidānaṃ, dhūpadīpanaṃ, tailadīpanivedanamiti caturvidhā yājñikatīrthikānāṃ kriyā|



triṣaṣṭyakṣarāṇāṃ caturṇāṃ ca padānāmartha iti śābdikāstīrthikāḥ|



oṣadhividyā ṣaḍvidhā| oṣadhināma, oṣadhiguṇaḥ, oṣadhirasaḥ, oṣadhivīryaṃ, sannipātaḥ, vipākaśceti bhaiṣājyadharmāḥ|



ṣaṭpadārthā vaiśeṣikāṇām||

pradhanasyaikyaṃ puruṣā bahavaḥ| [teṣāṃ ca] vimuktiriti sāṃkhyāḥ|



aṣṭau sūkṣmāṇi yathā| catvāri mahābhūtāni buddhirākāśo, vidyā, avidyā, aṣṭaiśvaryāṇi [tadyathā] aṇimā, mahimā, laghimā, prāptiḥ, prākāmyaṃ, kāyavibhāgaḥ, īśitvaṃ tirobhāvaśca| iti yogatīrthikāḥ|



jīvo'jīvaḥ pāpaṃ puṇyamāśravaḥ, nirjarā, sambaraḥ, bandhaḥ, mokṣaḥ| pañcajñānāni [tadyathā] śrutajñānaṃ, matijñānaṃ, avadhijñānaṃ, manaḥparyāyajñānaṃ, kevalajñānam| ṣaḍāvaraṇāni, darśanāvaraṇaṃ, duḥkhavedanīyāvaraṇaṃ, mohāvaraṇamāyurāvaraṇaṃ, gotrāvaraṇaṃ, nāmāvaraṇañca| catvāraḥ kaṣāyāḥ [tadyathā] krodhaḥ, mānaḥ, lābhaḥ, māyā ceti nirgranthadharmāḥ|



apare'pi santi ye vadanti sarvamekaṃ sabhdāvājjñeyam| sarvadharmāṇāṃ ca guṇavattvādaikyam, kiñca pradhānāt samutpannaṃ sarvamekaṃ jñeyamekamūlatvā ityevamekavādinastīrthikāḥ|



apare vadanti| sarvaṃ pṛthak| kuta iti cet| yathā śiraḥpadādi kāyātpṛthak| api ca lakṣaṇapṛthaktaṃ yathā vṛṣabho'śvavilakṣaṇaḥ| tasmātsarvaṃ pṛthagiti jñeyam| iti pṛthagvādinastīrthikāḥ|



atha kathaṃ sarvamekaṃ sabhdāvāditi| yataḥ saddhi dvedhā cetanamacetanañca| tatkathamekaṃ hetuvaiṣamyāṃditi| evaṃ dharmāṇāṃ samāsato dūṣaṇam|



yadi punaḥ kaścidvadedduḥkhasamudayanirodhamārgadvādaśanidānasaṃskṛtādidharmāṇāmekatvaṃ pṛthaktaṃ veti sarvametadasaddhetukam| kasmāt| yadyekatvaṃ tadā duḥkhāntavādāpattiḥ| yadi pṛthaktaṃ tadā sukhāntavādāpattiḥ| tasmāduktaṃ [ekatve pṛthakte vā]ntadvayavādāpattiḥ| naiṣa buddhadharmasyārtha iti|



api ca yathā kecidvadanti nirvāṇabhāvaḥ na duḥkhaṃ na ca sukham| kathaṃ jñātamiti cet| sarve hi dharmāścetanāḥ saduḥkhasukhā nirvāṇaṃ tvacetanaṃ kathaṃ sukhaṃ syāt|



api ca kecidvādinaḥ sukhaṃ vadanti| kuta iti cet| sukhaṃ trividham| sukhavedanāsukhaṃ, anupaghātaḥ, anākāṅkṣā ca| nirvāṇa ākāṅkṣābhāvānnirvāṇaṃ sukham|



api ca nirvāṇaṃ nityamiti mayā pūrvaṃ jñātam| idānīntu [vaktavyaṃ] saṃskārebhyastat pṛthak na veti kecit | atrocyate| nirvāṇaṃ nityamiti pūrvaṃ jñātaṃ kimucyate saṃksāraistattulyam| saṃskārāṇāṃ svabhāvaḥ pariṇāmaḥ pradhvaṃsaśca| nirvāṇabhāvasya tu nityatā sukhatvañca| kathaṃ vidvāṃstatsaṃskāraistulyaṃ vadet|



anyacca kecidāhuḥ| ātmabhāvasya rūpavattve nityo'nityo vāyamiti na niścīyate|



atrocyate| sarvaṃ mūrtamanityameva yathā murto ghaṭo vināśī| ātmāpi tadvaditi cettadā'nitya eva| ātmano mūrtatvantu sūtrairna samarthitaṃ, yuktihīnañcaitat| yathā ratnabudhyā sikatopalādānaṃ tathā bhavato vacanamatīva mithyā| atha kasmādātmā'murta iti cenmayā pūrvamuktaṃ ghaṭo mūrtatvādvināśīti| yadyātmaivaṃ syāt, tadā so'pi vināśī bhavet| kathamidānīṃ bhavatā pṛcchyate “kasmādātmā'mūrta” iti|



aparañca| aniyatasiddhāntalakṣaṇam, yathā kaścit pṛcchet| kiṃ śabdo vastu[bhūto] nityo'nityo vā| atrocyate| yadvibhāganiṣpannaṃ tadanityameva| śabdo'pi vibhāganiṣpannaḥ kathaṃ nityo bhavet|



atha kiṃ nāma śabdo vastu[bhūtaḥ]| atrocyate| aniścaye kathaṃ praśnaḥ|



atha kiṃ kevala evātmānāgate'dhvani sukhaduḥkhe vedayate saśarīro vā|



atrocyate| etasmiccharīre vinaṣṭa ātmano'parasmiñcharīre vedanam|



nanu ka eṣa ātmā yo'nāgate'dhvani sukhaduḥkhe vedayate| atrocyate|‘ātmā, iti pūrvamuktaṃ bhavatā| kathaṃ punaḥ sannasan vātmā’ iti pṛcchyate| ayuktametat|



atha siddhāntārtha uktaḥ| kiṃ punarvākyapraśaṃsālakṣaṇam| atrocyate| yuktyaviruddhamanadhikamanyūnamadhigatapadārthaṃ vacanadharmanibaddhaṃ prasiddhadṛṣṭāntāviruddhamananuyojyañca| ebhirhetubhirvākyapraśaṃsetyucyate|



nanu kiṃ nāma yuktyaviruddham| atrocyate| vijñānamevātmeti kecinmanyante sarvaskārāṇāṃ śūnyatvādanātmatvācca| na hi sarve saṃskārā vijñānamiti tadayuktam| saṃskārā hi vijñānasya hetavaḥ| hetūnāṃ cānātmatvāt, kathaṃ vijñānamātmā|



atha sarve dharmāṃ anityāḥ śabdastu naiva sarvaṃ, tasmācchabdo nitya iti| atrocyate| bhavatā sarvamityuktam, ko'rthaḥ punaḥ śabdasya, yo naiva sarvam| etadahetukamayuktañca|



anyacca| sarve kṛtakadharmā anityā eva| agnisantānavat| śabdo'pi tathā| tasmādanityaḥ| etadaviruddhalakṣaṇam|



atha kimanadhikamanyūnañca| atrocyate| ahikanyūnatvayorlakṣaṇaṃ pūrvamuktam| nyūnatvaṃ trividham hetunyūnatvaṃ vākyanyūnatvaṃ dṛṣṭāntanyūnatvañca| yadi kaścidvadet| ṣaḍvijñānanyanityāni ghaṭavat| kāraṇantu na vadettadā taddhetunyūnatvamityucyate| yadi kaścidvadeheho'yamanātmā sakāraṇatvāt| śabdo'pyanātmā sakāraṇatvādetadṛṣṭāntanyūnatvam|



yadi kaścidvadedanityāni catvāri mahābhūtāni ghaṭavatkṛtakāni| etadvākyanyūnatvam| etadvīparītaṃ tu sampannamityucyate|



sampannañca yathā| ātmavādyevaṃ praṣṭavyaḥ| yaduktaṃ bhavatātmeti sa nityo'nityo vā| yadyanityastadā saṃskāravadvināśadharmā| nitya iti cettarhi kathaṃ nirvāṇaspṛhā| etat sampannalakṣaṇam|



atha kiṃ nāmādhikam| atrocyate| adhikaṃ trividham, hetvadhikaṃ, dṛṣṭāntādhikaṃ, vākyādhikañca| yadi kaścidvadecchabdo'nityaḥ samyogajaḥ| yathā ghaṭaḥ kṛtako'nityaśca| punarapi vadecchabda ākāśasya guṇaḥ| ākāśo'mūrtaḥ śabdastu rūpadharmā kathamanyonyasamāśrayaḥ| etaddhetvadhikam yadyucyate pañcendriyāṇyanityāni pratidhvanivatkṛtakatvāt| śabdo'pi tathā| kathaṃ tajjñāyate| oṣṭhamukhādisamubhdavatvāt| tadṛṣṭāntādhikam| yadyucyate 'ṇuḥ sūkṣma ākāśastu vyāpī| ubhāvapi nityau| śabdastu na tathā tasmādanitya etadṛṣṭāntādhikam| api ca śabdo 'nityaḥ sakāraṇatvāt| nitya iti cet, tadayuktam| kasmāt ? dvābhyāṃ hetubhyām| murtobhdavatvādaindriyakatvācca| kathaṃ nitya iti yacca samānadharmakaṃ tatsarvamanityam| etadvākyādhikamucyate|



atrāha| kīdṛśaṃ vākyaṃ laukikānāṃ pratipādanāya smartham| ucyate| yadi mūrkhāya gambhīrārtha vadedyathā sarve dharmā śūnyāḥ śāntā nirātmāno niṣpugdalā māyāvat nirmāṇavattattvarahitā ityādi tadā taṃ gambhīrārthaṃ vidvāneva jñātuṃ śankoti pṛthagjanastu śrutvā bhrāntyāpanno bhavet| etadaprāptakālam| athocyate| asti dharmāṇāṃ karma, asti viṣākro'sti ca bandhamokṣaḍiḥ| yaḥ karoti so'nubhuṅkta ityalpabuddhayo'pi śrutvāvagacchanti yathā vedhakāraṇisaṃyogenāgnerūtpattiḥ| yadabhidhīyate tadyadi sattvopayogi bhavet, tadā sarveṣāṃ [tatra] pratītiranumodanañca| etat prāptakālam|



atha kiṃ pratipattiḥ| ucyate| abhihitasya bāhulye'pi smaraṇasāmarthyam, arthānāṃ gāmbhīrye'pi tallakṣaṇopalabdhiḥ, janaprītikaraśca sādhyasāraḥ| yathā kaścidvadet sarve dharmāḥ śūnyā anīśvarāḥ sarvavastūnāṃ pratītyasamutpannatvāditi pratipattiḥ|



atha ke vākyadoṣāḥ| atrocyate| pūrvoktaviparītā vākyadoṣāḥ| vākyadoṣāḥ punardvividhāḥ| kiñca taddvaividhyam| arthasyābhede punaruktiḥ| vākyasya cābhede punaruktiriti| kā nāmaikārthapunaruktiḥ| yathā kauśika ityuktvā punarvadeddevendraḥ śakraḥ purandaro veti| iyamucyata etasyaivārthasya nāmāntarapunaruktiḥ|



nāmārthatulyatā yathā| indra ityuktvā punarapīndra iti vadet| iyaṃ nāmārthābhede punaruktiḥ|



yadalaṅkṛtamasaṅgaṃ voktaṃ sa sarvo vākyadoṣa ityucyate| aparañca yadyuktisamupetamapyakramam eṣo'pi vākyadoṣa iti|



yathā gāthayoktam|

yathā kaściddevānāmindrasya śakrasya bhāryāṃ praśaṃmayan suvarṇarūpiṇīm||



komalapādahastāṃ paścācca śakro devānāmindro 'suratripuravināśīti tu vadannityakramaṃ vacanamuktam|



atha katividhaṃ pramāṇam| caturvidhaṃ pramāṇam| pratyakṣamanumānamupamānamāgamaśceti| caturṣu pramāṇeṣu pratyakṣa śreṣṭham| kutaḥ punaḥ pratyakṣaṃ śreṣṭhamiti cedapareṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ pramāṇānāṃ pratyakṣopajīvakatvācchreṣṭham| yathā dṛṣṭe dhūmavatyagnau paścāddhumadarśanādagneranumānam| tasmātpratyakṣaṃ viśiṣyate| yatha ca marīcidarśanenodakopamānam| tasmātpratyakṣe pūrvaṃ jñāte paścādupamānalābhaḥ| .....paścātpratyakṣakāle pūrvajñānaṃ satyam|



tataśca pratyakṣādeva [pramāṇa]trayaṃ jñānamiti jñātam| idānīntu tatpratyakṣaṃ kathaṃ saditi| atrocyate| pañcendriyajñānaṃ kadācinmithyā| yattu sādhyavasāyaṃ samyagdharmāvabodhakaṃ tatparamam| grīṣme marīcīnāmalātacakragandharvanagarāṇāṃ ca pratyakṣe'pi tadasat|



aparañca| lakṣaṇāspaṣṭatvāddarśanabhramaḥ| yathā rātrau sthāṇuṃ dṛṣṭvā manuṣya eṣa ityucyate| aṅgulyā cakṣuḥpīḍanācca dvicandradarśanam| śūnyatājñāne prāpte samyagdṛṣṭirucyate| jñāta pratyakṣaṃ tāvat| atha kimanumānalakṣaṇam| ucyate tatpūrvamuddiṣṭam| adhunā vyākhyāyate| anumānaṃ trividhaṃ pūrvavat, śeṣavat, sāmānyato [dṛṣṭaṃ] ca| yathā ṣaḍaṅguliṃ sapiḍakamūrdhānaṃ bālaṃ dṛṣṭvā paṣcāddhṛddhaṃ bahuśrutaṃ devadattaṃ dṛṣṭvā ṣaḍaṅgulismaraṇāt so'yamiti pūrvavat|



śeṣavat yathā, sāgarasalilaṃ pītvā tallavaṇarasamanubhūya śeṣamapi salilaṃ tulyameva lavaṇamiti| etaccheṣavadanumānam|



sāmānyato dṛṣṭaṃ yathā| kaścigdacchaṃstaṃ deśaṃ prāpnoti| gagane'pi sūryācandramasau pūrvasyāṃ diśyuditau paścimāyāñcāstaṃ gatau| tacceṣṭāyāmadṛṣṭāyāmapi tadgamanamanumīyate| etatsāmānyato dṛṣṭam| nanu kā śrutiḥ| atrocyate, satyaprācīnavṛddhabuddhabodhisattvadarśanādāryasūtradharmaśravaṇagrahaṇayorjñānadarśanotpādasāmarthyameṣā śrutirityucyate| yathā suvaidyako bheṣajakuśalo maitracittena śikṣakaḥ suśruta ityucyate|



evamapi yat kṛtasarvadharmasākṣātkārairmahājñānairāryaiḥ śrutaṃ tat suśrutamucyate|



atha kimupamānalakṣaṇam| atrocyate| yathā sarve dharmā śūnyāḥ śāntā māyāvat nirmāṇavat| saṃjñā'dāntāśvavat, saṃskārāḥ kadalīvat, kāmalakṣaṇaṃ piḍakavat viṣavat| etadupamānamucyate| evaṃ catvāro hetavaḥ| tadavagamanaṃ hetujñānamityuktam|



atha ke hetvābhāsāḥ| atrācyate| hetvābhāsā eteṣu vādadharmesu mahādoṣā eva jñeyāḥ| śīghrañcāpahartavyāḥ| athedānīṃ hetvābhāsā vyākhyāsyante| hetvābhāsānāṃ lakṣaṇānyaparimitāni saṃkṣepatastvaṣṭāveva| vākchalaṃ, sāmānyachalaṃ, saṃśayasamaḥ, kālātītaḥ, prakaraṇasamaḥ, varṇyasamaḥ, savyabhicāraḥ, viruddhaḥ|



nanvete'ṣṭau dharmā vistareṇa vivektavyāḥ| ucyate| nava iti caturvidham| navaḥ, nava, na vaḥ, nava iti|



yathā kaścidāha| yo maya parihitaḥ sa navakambalaḥ| atra dūṣaṇaṃ (vadet) yabhdavatā parihitaṃ tadekameva vastraṃ kathaṃ naveti| atra prativedenmayā nava ityuktaṃ tathāca navaḥ kambalaḥ natu naveti| atra dūṣayetkathaṃ nava ? navalomairnirmitatvānnava ityukte prativādī vadet tattvato'parimitāni lomāni kathaṃ navalomānītyucyate|



atrāha| nava iti mayā pūrvamuktaṃ na tu navasaṃkhyā| atra dūṣaṇam| tadvastraṃ yuṣmākameveti jñātaṃ kasmādetanna vaḥ kathyate| atrottaram| mayā nava ityuktaṃ kintu na va iti noktam| atra dūṣaṇam| bhavataḥ kāyaṃ kambalo vasta iti pratyakṣametat| kathamucyate na vaḥkambalaḥ| ayaṃ hetvābhāsa ityucyate vākchalaṃ ca|



aparañca vākchalam| yathā girirdahyata ityukte, dūṣaṇam| tattvatastṛṇataravo dahyante kathaṃ girirdahyata ityuktam| etadvākchalamityucyate|



api ca chalaṃ dvividhaṃ| pūrvavat sāmānyañceti| yathā| saṃskṛtā dharmāḥ śrūnyāḥ śāntā ākāśavadityukte, dūṣaṇam| yadyevaṃ, ubhayorapi śūnyatvamabhāvaśca, tadā niḥsvabhāvā dharmā ākāśatulyā iti sāmānyachalam|



kā tāvadutpattiriti| atrocyate| sata utpattiriti| yathā mṛdo ghaṭatvattvāddhaṭotpādakatvam| yadi mṛdo ghaṭatvavattvaṃ tadā mṛdeva ghaṭaḥ syāt| tadā tadutpattaye kṛtaṃ kumbhakārarajjucakrasaṃyogena| yadi mṛdaḥ sabhdāvena ghaṭotpādakatvaṃ, tadodakasyāpi sabhdāvena ghaṭotpādakatvaṃ syāt| yadyudakasya sabhdāvena ghaṭānutpādakatvaṃ kathaṃ tarhi mṛdo ghaṭotpādakatvam| iti sāmānyachalam|



kiṃ nāma saṃśayahetvābhāsalakṣaṇam| ucyate| sthāṇormanuṣyasādṛśyāt, rātrau taṃ dṛṣṭvā, eṣa sthāṇuḥ puruṣo veti vimarśaḥ| ayaṃ saṃśayahetvābhāsa iti|



kaḥ punaḥ kālātītahetvābhāsaḥ| ucyate| yathā kaścidvadennityaḥ śabdaḥ| śabdamayatvādvedo'pi nitya iti| atra dūṣaṇam| idānīṃ bhavatā śabdasya nityatākāraṇamapratiṣṭhāpya kathaṃ vedo nitya ityucyate|



atra vadedyathākāśamarūpatvānnityaṃ tathā śabdo'pyarūpatvānnityaḥ| tadvacane paścādapyukte so'rthaḥ sidhyati| atra dūṣaṇaṃ kālatītametadvacanam| yathā gṛhe dagdha udākānveṣaṇaṃ bhavatopyevamiti kālātītaḥ|



atha ko nāma prakaraṇasamaḥ ? (ātmanaḥ) śarīra bhinnatvādātmā nityaḥ| yathā (ghaṭasya) ākaśabhinnatvādvaṭo'nityaḥ| ayaṃ prakaraṇasama ityucyate|



atra dūṣaṇam| yadyātmā śarīrabhinnatrvānnitya iti, tadā (ghaṭasya) ākāśabhinnatvādvaṭo'nityaḥ| ayam prakaraṇasama ityucyate|



atra dūṣaṇam| yadyātmā śarīrabhinnatvānnitya iti, tadā (ghaṭasya) śarīrabhinnatvādvaṭo'pi nityaḥ syāt śarīrabhinnatve'pi ghaṭo'nitya iti cet, tarhyātmāpi śarīrabhinnatvāt kathaṃ nityaḥ| iti prakaraṇasamaḥ|



ko nāma varṇyasamaḥ| ucyate| yathā nityamākāśamasparśatvāt| manovijñānamapi tathā| ayaṃ varṇyasama ityucyate|



kaḥ savyabhicāraḥ| ucyate| yathā pañcaviṣayā anityā indriyagrāhyatvāt| catvāri mahābhūtānyapi tathā tasmādanityāni|



atra dūṣaṇam| kūrmaroma lavaṇagandhaśca nirābhāsamātraṃ manovijñānopalabhyatvātkimanityamiti savyabhicāraḥ|



atha ko nāma viruddhaḥ| ucyate| viruddho dvividhaḥ| dṛṣṭāntaviruddho yuktiviruddhaśca| yathātmā nityo'mūrtatvāt, vṛṣabhavat| ayaṃ dṛṣṭāntaviruddhaḥ|



yuktiviruddho yathā, brāhmaṇasya kṣatrakarmānupālanaṃ mṛgayādiśikṣā ca, kṣatriyasya dhyānasamāpattiriti yuktiviruddhaḥ| evambhūtau dharmāvajñā abuddhaiva satyaṃ manyante|



nanu kimaviruddham| atrocyate| etabhdinnamaviruddhamityabhidhīyate|



iti hetvābhāsāḥ|



|| iti prathamaṃ prakaraṇam||
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