Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon

Atha dvitīyaṃ prakaraṇam

Technical Details
  • Text Version:
    Romanized
  • Input Personnel:
    DSBC Staff
  • Input Date:
    2007
  • Proof Reader:
    Miroj Shakya
  • Supplier:
    Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods
  • Sponsor:
    University of the West
atha dvitīyaṃ prakaraṇam|



(śāstramāha) khaṇḍanasya trividhadoṣāpattiḥ| viparīnakhaṇḍanamasatkhaṇḍanaṃ viruddhakhaṇḍanañceti| yadi khaṇḍanametattrividhadoṣopetaṃ tadā nigrahasthānam|



[tatra] viparītakhaṇḍanam| yadi pratiṣṭhāpitaṃ khaṇḍanaṃ samyagarthena na saṃyuktaṃ syāttadā tadviparītakhaṇḍanamityucyate| viparītakhaṇḍanaṃ daśavidham| (1)sādharmyakhaṇḍanam (2) vaidharmyakhaṇḍanam (3) vikalpakhaṇḍanam (4) aviśeṣakhaṇḍanam (5) prāptyaprāptikhaṇḍanam (6) ahetukhaṇḍanam(7) upalabdhikhaṇḍanam (8) saṃśayakhaṇḍanam (9) anuktikhaṇḍanam (10) kāryabhedakhaṇḍanam|



1. [tatra] sādharmyakhaṇḍanam| vastusādharmyapratyavasthānaṃ sādharmyakhaṇḍanamityucyate|



(śāstramāha) śabdo'nityaḥ pratyanotpannatvādyathā ghaṭaḥ prayatnotpannaḥ| utpannaśca vinaṣṭaḥ| śabdo'pi tatheti śabdo 'nitya iti sthāpite prativādī prāha| yadi ghaṭasādharmyācchabdo'nityastadākāśasādharmyācchabdo nityaḥ syāt| tataścākāśavacchabdo nitya iti| [atra] sādharmyamamūrtatvam|



(śāstraṃ punarāha) śabdo 'nityaḥ prayatnotpannatvāt| yannityaṃ na tatprayatnenotpannaṃ yathākāśaṃ nityaṃ na prayatnenotpannam| śabdastu na tathā| tasmācchabdo 'nitya iti sthāpite prativādī prāha| yadi (śabdasya) nityākāśavaidharmyacchabdo'nitya iti, tadā kiṃ prāptam ?| yadyākāśasādharmyaṃ tato nitya eva śabda iti| sādharmyaṃ cāmūrtatvaṃ tasmānnityaḥ|



(śāstramāha) ete khaṇḍane viparīte'siddhe ca (khaṇḍane)| kuta iti cet| aikāntikaikarasadharmasthāpanaṃ hi heturiti manyate| sarvadharmāṇāṃ prayatnotpannatvenānityatāvarṇanāt| so'nityatāvarṇakaheturaikāntikaikarasastasmādanityatā'napasaraṇīyaiva| tatsāmānajātīyaṃ cikhyāpayiṣatayā ghaṭādyudāharaṇamuktam|



prativādī tvanaikāntikaikarasārthapratyavasthānena khaṇḍanaṃ bhāṣate yathā yadi bhavān sādharmyeṇa śabdasyānityatāṃ sthāpayati tadāhamapi vaidharmyeṇa śabdasya nityatāṃ pratiṣṭhāpayāmi| yadi ca bhavadarthaḥ siddho mamāpyarthaḥ siddho bhavediti|



(śāstramāha) bhavataḥ khaṇḍanamayuktam| kuta iti cet| bhavatprayuktasya hetoranaikāntikanityatvānityatvāvyāptivarṇanāt| asmābhistrilakṣaṇo hetuḥ sthāpitaḥ| tadyathā pakṣadharmmaḥ sapakṣasatvaṃ vipakṣavyāvṛttiśca| tasmādvetusiddhiranapasaraṇīyā| bhavaddhetustu na tathā tasmādbhavatkhaṇḍanaṃ viparītam| yadi bhavatā pratiṣṭhāpito heturasmaddhetutulyobhavettadā samyakkhaṇḍanaṃ sidhyeta| yadyanityatāpratijñā nityatāṃ khaṇḍayati tadā [nityatā-] khaṇḍanasiddhiḥ| kuta iti cet| nityatāsthāpakahetunānityatāsthāpakahetuḥ khaṇḍyate cet, tadānityatāviparyāsadoṣo vyaktīkartuṃ na śakyata iti prasiddham| nityatāhetoranaikāntikaikarasatvādanityatāhetoraikāntikaikarasatvācca|



2. vaidharmyakhaṇḍanam| vastuvaidharmyapratyavasthānaṃ vaidharmyakhaṇḍanamityucyate|



(śāstramāha) anityaḥ śabdaḥ| kasmāt ? kṛtakatvāt| yat kṛtakaṃ tadanityam| yathākāśaṃ nityamakṛtakatvāt| śabdasya tathātvābhāvācchabdo'nityaḥ|



prativādī prāha| yadi śabdo nityākāśavidharmyādanitya iti, tadā kiṃ prāptam| yadi ghaṭavaidharmyaṃ śabdasya, tadā sa nitya iti| tadvaidharmyamamūrtatvam| ghaṭo mūrtastasmādghaṭo'nityaḥ śabdastu nityaḥ|



(śāstramāha) śabdo'nityaḥ kṛtakatvāt| yathā ghaṭo'nityaḥ kṛtakatvāt, tathā śabdo'pi|



prativādī prāha| yadi ghaṭasādharmyācchabdasyānityatā bhavatā sthāpitā, tadā kiṃ prāptam ?| śabdo nitya eva ghaṭavaidharmyādvaidharmyamamūrtatvam| ghaṭastu mūrtaḥ|



(śāstramāha) viparīta ete khaṇḍane| kuta iti cet| asmatsthāpitānityatāhetoraikāntikaikarasatvāt| bhavatpratiṣṭhāpitanityatāhetostvanaikāntikaikarasatvānnityatvānityatvavyāptivarṇanāt| tasmādaniścitaheturaikāntikahetuṃ khaṇḍayituṃ na śaknoti| yo'smābhiḥ sthāpito hetuḥ kṛtakatvācchabdo'nitya iti tasya (hetoḥ) pakṣadharmmaḥ sapakṣasattvaṃ vipakṣavyāvṛttiśca| trayalakṣaṇasampannatvāt so'napasaraṇīyaḥ| yaḥ punarbhavatpratiṣṭhāpito hetuḥ śabdo nityo'mūrtatvāditi tasya pakṣadharmaḥ sapakṣe vipakṣe ca vartata ityasiddho hetuḥ|



3. vikalpakhaṇḍanam| sādharmye vaidharmyapratyavasthānaṃ vikalpakhaṇḍanamucyate|



(śāstramāha) śabdo'nityaḥ pratyatnenotpannatvādghaṭavaditi śabdasyānityatā|



prativādī prāha| bhavāñchabdasya prayatnenotpannatvādghaṭavatsādharmyaṃ sthāpayati| asti punastadvaidharmyam| pakkatvamapakvatvaṃ, cākṣuṣatvamacākṣuṣatvamityādi evaṃ ghaṭaśabdayoḥ pratyekaṃ viśeṣaḥ| śabdaḥ prayatnenotpannatvānnityaḥ ghaṭastu prayatnenotpanno'pyanityaḥ| tasmācchabdo nityaḥ|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| asmatsthāpitaheturanityatā'vyāvṛtto nityatāvyāvṛttaḥ| etaddhetusthāpanamanityatānumānārtham| yathāgnyanumānārthaṃ dhūmaḥ prayujyate| dhūmo hyagnyavyāvṛttaḥ| tasmādasmatsthāpitahetuḥ sidvo'napasaraṇīyaśca|



bhavatā śabdasyāpakva iti viśeṣaṇaṃ prayujyate| tataśca nitya iti| tadecchādveṣaduḥkhasukhavāyvādīnyapakvāni na punaretāni nityāni| tasmādapakvatvaṃ nityatāhetutvena na pratiṣṭhāpayitavyam| na cācākṣuṣatvamapi nityatāhetutvena pratiṣṭhāpayitavyam| kuta iti cet| icchadveṣaduḥkhasukhavāyvādīnyacākṣuṣāṇi na punarnityāni| bhavaddhetuḥ sapakṣe vipakṣe ca vartate tasmādasādhakaḥ| bhavaddheturmama (heto) stulyo matpratijñāyāśca khaṇḍanāsamartha iti cet| asmatsthāpanaṃ trividhahetusamāśritaṃ tasmādatulyam| yadatulyaṃ tulyamiti bhavatoktaṃ tasmādbhavataḥ khaṇḍanaṃ viparītam|



4. aviśeṣakhaṇḍanam| ekasādharmyakhyāpanātsarvasyāviśeṣeṇa pratyavasthānamaviśeṣakhaṇḍanamucyate|



śabdo'nityaḥ kāraṇabhedena śabdasya bhedāddīpavat| yadi vartikā mahatī jyotirmahat| yadi vartikā kṣudrā jyotirapi kṣudram, iti sthāpite| prativādī prāha yadi sādharmyādyathā ghaṭādyanityaṃ śabdo'pi tathā syāttadā sarvasya sarveṇāviśeṣaprasaṅgaḥ| kuta iti cet| sarvasya sarveṇa sādharmyāt| sādharmyaṃ kiṃ punaścet| sattaikatvaṃ prameyatvamityetat sādharmyamucyate| sadharmāṇyapi sarvāṇi vastūni viśeṣṭavastubhyo bhinnānīti cecchabdo'pi tathā| ghaṭādisadharmā'pi śabdo nityo ghaṭastvanityaḥ| kuta iti cet| sattvādisādharmye'pi svabhāvaviśeṣasambhavāt| yathā dīpaḥ śabdo manuṣyo'śva ityādi| iti sādharmyasamāśritamanumānamasiddham|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanaṃ kuta iti cet| sarveṣāṃ na mayā sattvādisādharmyaṃ pratiṣidvamapi tu teṣāṃ viśeṣa evāvadhāryate| sādharmyasampattitraividhyamanityatāṃ sthāpayati| taccāsmābhiranityatāsādhanāyocyate na tu sādharmyamātramupādīyate na khalvasti sā kā'pi yuktiryā naivaṃ vicāryate| kasmāditi cet| naikamapi vidyate tādṛśaṃ yadanyavastuno na sadṛśaṃ na ca viśiṣṭaṃ syāt| tasmādyadi sādharmyamasti tadā tatsapakṣavarti sarvavipakṣavyāvṛttam| yadi tadupādānena hetusthāpanaṃ, siddho hetureṣa| sādharmyamātreṇa hetupratiṣṭhāpanaṃ tvasiddhaṃ tasmādviparītam|



punaścānityaḥ śabdaḥ kṛtakatvādghaṭavat| tasmācchabdo'nityaḥ|



prativādī prāha| hetuḥ pratijñā cābhāvānna bhidyete| ko nāmārtho hetusamutpādasya| hetvasaṃyoge śabdasyānutpāda iti| anutpannatvādabhāva evetyetasyārthaḥ| kathaṃ nāma śabdo'nitya iti| anutpannaḥ śabda utpattimupalabhata utpanno vinaśyati| vināśāccābhāva evetyetasyārthaḥ| iti hetuḥ pratijñā cābhāvavat|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| asmatpratijñāyā abhāvaḥ pradhvaṃsābhāvātmakaḥ| asmatsthāpitahetorabhāvaḥ prāgabhāvaḥ| prāgabhāvaḥ sarvalokaprasiddhatvātsiddho'nityatāhetutvena sthāpitaḥ| pradhvaṃsābhāvaḥ sāṃkhyādyaprasidvatvādasiddhaḥ| artho hi siddhena hetunā sthāpyate|



yadi siddhā pratijñopādīyate 'siddhastu heturbhavataḥ khaṇḍanasya viparyāso'dhikataro bhavet| sarveṣāṃ vastūnāṃ pūrvamabhūtvā paścādabhāva iti mayoktam| tasmācchabdaḥ pūrvamasaṃścet paścādapyasan| yadi pūrvamasattvaṃ bhavato 'nanujñātaṃ tadaitadbhavatā cintyatām| yadi pūrvaṃ śabdaḥ sanneva na cāsti pratibandhastadā kasmācchrotreṇa nopalabhyate| tasmātpūrvamasattvaṃ nāgapadavaditi jñāyate| yadi kañcidviśiṣṭabuddhirabhimatamarthaṃ sādhayituṃ na śaknoti, iṣṭasādhanaṃ ca na yuktisampannaṃ so'rtho nirasanīyaḥ|



5. prāptyaprāptikhaṇḍanam| hetuḥ sādhyaṃ prāpnoti na vā ? | yadi tāvat sādhyaṃ prāpnoti tadāsādhakaḥ| atha hetuḥ sādhyaṃ na prāpnoti tadāpyasādhakaḥ| etatprāptyaprāptikhaṇḍanamucyate|



prativādī prāha| yadi hetuḥ sādhyaṃ prāpnoti tadā sādhyena saṃsargātsādhyaṃ na sādhayati| yathā nadīvāri samudravāripraviṣṭaṃ na punarnadīvāri, hetustadvadasādhakaḥ| yadi sādhyamasiddhaṃ, tadā heturaprāpakaḥ| yadi prāpakastadā kiṃ siddhasyārthasya hetunā| tasmāddheturasiddhaḥ| atha na prāpnoti tadā so'nyavastuvadasādhakaṃ, tasmaddheturasiddhaḥ| yadi heturaprāpakastadā'samarthaḥ| yathāgniraprāpya dahanāsamartho'siścāprāpya chedanāsamarthaḥ|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanaṃ| dvividho hetuḥ| utpattiheturvyañjanahetuśca| yadi bhavataḥ khaṇḍanamutpattihetusamāśritaṃ tadā siddhaṃ khaṇḍanam| yadi vyañjanahetusamāśritaṃ tadā viparītam| kasmāditi cet| uktaṃ mayā yaddhetuḥ sādhyaṃ notpādayatyapi tu parapratipādanārthaṃ sādhyaṃ vyanaktyavyāvṛttatvāt| sādhyasattve'pi sādhyasya yathārthajñānaṃ na jāyate| kuta iti cet| mohāt| tasmād vyañjanaheturityucyate| yathā rūpasattve'pi pradīpaprayojanaṃ tadvyañjanārthaṃ na tu tadutpattyartham| tasmādvyañjanahetāvutpattikhaṇḍanaṃ viparītakhaṇḍanam|



6. ahetukhaṇḍanaṃ| traikālye hetorasambhava ityahetukhaṇḍanamucyate|



prativādī prāha| kiṃ hetuḥ sādhyātpūrvaṃ paścādyugapadvā| yadi tāvaddhetuḥ prāk sādhyañca paścāttadāsati sādhye, hetuḥ kasya sādhakaḥ ?| atha paścāt, sādhyañca prāk, tadā siddhe sādhye kiṃ hetunā ?| atha yugapattadāhetuḥ| yathā yugapatsadbhāvāṅgoḥ śṛṅge dakṣiṇaṃ vāmaṃ vā parasparotpādake ityayuktam| tasmādyaugapadyañcettadā hetutvāsambhavaḥ|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| yatpūrvaṃ samutpannaṃ tadeva hetunā vyajyate yathā dīpaḥ vidyamānānyeva vastūni vyanakti na tvavidyamānāni vastūnyutpādayati| bhavān punarutpattihetunā me vyañjakahetuṃ khaṇḍayati tasmādviparītametatkhaṇḍanaṃ, na tu siddham|



atha manyase yadyeṣa heturvyañjakaheturbhavati jñānābhāve sa kasya hetuḥ| tasmād vyañjakaheturasiddha iti kṛte khaṇḍane, tadā prāptikriyā'sambhave heturnāma nopapadyate kriyāsadbhāve tu heturnāmopapadyate| yadā vyañjanakriyā tadaiva heturnāmopapadyate| taduktaṃ bhavati pūrvaṃ heturnāma nopapadyate paścāttu heturnāmopapadyate| yaccābhihitaṃ hetuḥ prāk kriyā tu paścāditi tadadoṣam| athaivaṃ sati, kriyāyā hetuto'nutpattiriti cedetat khaṇḍanamasiddham| kasmāditi cet| etatprāgeva [sad] vastu paścāddheturnāmopapadyate| vastuni vinaṣṭe paścāt kriyotpattiriti cet, tadaitatkhaṇḍanaṃ sidhyati na tvevamucyate, pūrvaṃ bhāve'pi [hetoriti] nāmānupapattiḥ paścāttu nāmopapattiḥ| tasmātphalasya hetuta utpattiḥ|



7. upalabdhikhaṇḍanam| viśiṣṭahetunānityatāvarṇanādeṣo'heturiti upalabdhikhaṇḍanamucyate|



prativādī prāha| yadi prayatna[ānantarīyaka]tvācchabdo 'nityastadā yatra prayatno na vidyate tatra nityatāprasaṅgaḥ| yathā vidyudvāyvādīnyaprayatna [ānantarīyaka]āṇyanityeṣu cāntarbhūtāni tasmādanityatve sādhye na prayatnamātraṃ samāśrayaṇīyaṃ prayatnasyāsādhanatvāt| sādhanañcedyatra yatra prayatno nāsti tatra tatra nityatāyāḥ sambhavaḥ| yathāgniṃ vinā na dhūmasthitiḥ| dhūmo'gneḥ saddheturdhūmāgnyoravyatirekāt| prayatnastu na tathā, tasmādasiddho hetuḥ| kiñca prayatno nānityatāsthāpanāsamarthaḥ| kuta iti cet| vyāptyabhāvāt| vyāptisambhave hyanityatāsthāpanopapattiḥ| vyāptyasambhave tvanityatāsthāpanānupapattiḥ| yathā kasyacitpratijñā syāt sarve taravo divyacetanā iti| kasmāditi cet| tarūṇāṃ nidrāsambhavācchirīṣavat| tatrāha khaṇḍayitā| tarūṇāṃ divyacetanāsiddhā| kasmāt ? hetorvyāptyabhāvāt| śirīṣa eva svapiti na tvapare taravaḥ| sa svapno na sarvāṃstarūn vyāpnoti tasmātsarveṣāṃ tarūṇāṃ divyacetanatvapratiṣṭhāpane svapno'samarthaḥ| prayatno'pi tathā sarveṣāmanityānāmavyāpakatvādanityatāsthāpane'samarthaḥ||



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| mayaivaṃ noktam| naitaducyate mayā yatprayatnaḥ sarvānityatākhyāpane samartho heturanye tu hetavo 'samarthāḥ| yadyanyo'nityatākhyāpane samartho heturvidyate tadāhaṃ sukhī| asmadarthasiddheḥ| asmatsthāpito hetuḥ khyāpanasamarthaḥ, anyo 'pi hetuḥ khyāpanasamarthaḥ| tasmātpratijñā siddhā| yathā dhūmenāgniranumitaḥ| yadi kaścidvadetprabhayāgnirapi siddho 'smadarthe'pi tathāsambhavaḥ| prayatnotpattiranityatākhyāpanasamarthā| yadyanye 'pi hetavo 'nityatākhyāpanasamarthā, anityatāpi siddhā| tasmādviparītaṃ khaṇḍanaṃ bhavataḥ| asmanmatākhaṇḍanāt| yadyahaṃ bravīmi yadyadanityaṃ tattatsarvaṃ prayatnasamutpannamiti tadā prayatnotpattihetoravyāpitvādasiddhatvamiti bhavatā khaṇḍanaṃ vaktavyam| tadaitacca khaṇḍanaṃ viśiṣyate| yadāhaṃ bravīmi śabdābikamanityaṃ prayatnasamutpannatvāttadā yatsarvamanitya tatprayatnasamutpannamiti nocyate| tasmādviparītaṃ khaṇḍanaṃ bhavataḥ|



8. saṃśayakhaṇḍanam| vipakṣasādharmyātsaṃśayavādena khaṇḍanam|



anityaḥ śabdaḥ prayatnasamutpannatvāt| yadyatprayatnasamutpannaṃ tattadanityaṃ ghaṭavat| iti sthāpite prativādī prāha| yatsamutpannaṃ tatprayatena vyaktaṃ yathā mūlakīlakodakaṃ prayatnena vyaktaṃ na tu prayatnena samutpannam| śabdo'pi tathā| tasmātprayatnadvārā hetusthāpanamaniyatamanutpanna utpanne ca bhāvāt| tasmāt taṃ hetumāśritya śabde saṃśayotpattiḥ| kathaṃ ca śabdo'vadhāryate ? kiṃ ghatavadasamutpannaḥ samutpadyate mūlakīlodakavatsamutpanno vā vyajyate ? tasmadanaikāntikatā| tasmādutpattihetoḥ saṃśayotpādakatvādasādhakatvamiti jñeyam| kasmāt| utpādakatvād vyaktīkaraṇācca|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| noktamasmābhiryacchabdaḥ prayatnena vyaktaḥ| api tu yataḥ prayatnena samutpannastasmācchabdo 'nitya iti| punarbhavatā kiṃ khaṇḍyate| yadi (bhavato)cyate prayatnakāryaṃ dvividhamutpattirabhivyaktiśca| utpattirghaṭādivadabhivyaktirmūlakīlo dakādivat| śabdo 'pi prayatnakāryaḥ| tasmāttasmin nityatā'nityatāsaṃśayotpattiriti| tadayuktam| kuta iti cet| mūlakīlodakāderaprayatnakāryatvāt| mūlakīlodakābhivyaktiḥ prayatnakāryyeti cet| etadasmanmataṃ na khaṇḍayati| abhivyaktiranutpannā prayatnenotpatti labhate| tasmātprayatnakāryamekavidhaṃ sadaivanityatvāditi bhavatkhaṇḍanamayuktam|



atha manyase yatprayatna-[kāryaṃ] taddvidham| anityaṃ nityañca| ghaṭotpattiranityā ghaṭadhvaṃso nityaḥ| śabdo'pi tatheti| eṣa saṃśayo'yuktaḥ| kasmāt ? asiddhatvāt| yadi bhavato ghaṭadhvaṃsasya dhvaṃse sadbhāvastataḥ sadbhāvāddhvaṃsābhāvaḥ syāt| yadi dhvaṃse 'bhāvastadā dhvaṃso 'bhāva eva| kuta iti cet| bhāvābhāvāt| andhakāravat| andhakāre jyotiṣo'bhāvaḥ tasmādandhakāraḥ| dhvaṃso 'pi tathā| dhvaṃse bhāvābhāvaḥ tasmāddhvaṃsabhāva iti cet| tadayuktaṃ khapuṣpabandhyāputraśaśaviṣāṇeṣu bhāvābhāvātteṣāmapi sadbhāvaprasaṅgaḥ| yadi khapuṣpādīnāṃ sadbhāvo bhavatā nānujñāyate, tadā ghaṭadhvaṃsasyāpi tathātvam| tasmātsadbhāva iti na vaktavyam| tasmātprayatnakāryamekavidhaṃ sadaivānityatvāt| tasmādayukto bhavataḥ saṃśayaḥ| apratipattiścedbhavataḥ pratipādanārthamahaṃ vyañjanahetuṃ vadāmi| anityaḥ śabdaḥ| kasmāt| prāgvyavadhānābhāvātprayatnenotpattiniṣpattiḥ| tasmādanityaḥ śabdo ghaṭavaditi jñātam| yatprayatnenopalabhyate yacca prayatnena kriyate tadubhayaṃ bhinnamiti bhavatā pratiṣṭhāpitam| tadayuktam| ko'yamartho yatprayatnenopalabhyate tadanityamiti| kasmāt| yasmādanutpannaṃ samutpadyate samutpannañca vinaśyati| tasmānmūlakīlodakādestathāpyanityatāsambhavaḥ| yaccocyate yadabhivyaktaṃ nityamiti tasya kiṃ prayojanam|



9. anuktikhaṇḍanam| pūrvamanuktatvādanityatā'bhāva etadanuktikhaṇḍanam|



pratijñā pūrvavat| prativādī prāha| prayatna iti vacanaṃ śabdasyānityatāheturiti cettadā kiṃ prāpyate ? prayatna ityanukte tadā śabdo nityaḥ| etadeva prāpyate, pūrvakāle nitye sati kathamadhunānityaḥ syāt|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt| asmābhiḥ sthāpito heturabhivyaktyartho notpattyartho na vā vināśārthaḥ| yadyasmatsthāpitasya hetorvināśaḥ syāttadā bhavatkhaṇḍanaṃ viśiṣyeta| yadā heturmayānuktastadā śabdasyānityatānabhivyakteti cedbhavatkhaṇḍanam| etatkhaṇḍanābhāsa eva| yadi vināśahetunā mām khaṇḍayati bhavān tadviparītakhaṇḍanaṃ syāt|



10. kāryabhedakhaṇḍanam-kāryyabhedād ghaṭavatacchabda iti na vaktavyam| etat kāryabhedakhaṇḍanamucyate|



anityaḥ śabdaḥ kṛtakatvād ghaṭavaditi sthāpite prativādī prāha ghaṭaśabdayoḥ kāryabhedaḥ| kāryabhedāt tulyānityatānupapattiḥ|



viparītametatkhaṇdanam| kasmāt ?| anitya śabdo ghaṭasamānakāryatvāditi noktaṃ mayā| api tu sarvāṇi vastūni tulyena nyāyena kṛtakatvād anityānītyevamuktam| na tu samānakāryāpekṣatvād ghaṭavacchabdo'nitya iti| dhūmo bhinno'pyagnivyañjakaḥ| ghaṭo'pi tathā śabdasyanityatāvyañjakaḥ|



anyacca paraṇoktaṃ kāryaviśeṣakhaṇḍanam| anyadasti yenocyate nityaḥ śabda ākāśasamāśritatvāt| ākāśo nityaḥ| yatkiñcidākāśasamāśritaṃ tannityam| yathā paramāṇoḥ pārimāṇḍalyam| paramāṇurnityaḥ pārimāṇḍalyañca paramāṇusamāśritaṃ, tasmātpārimāṇḍalyaṃ nityam| śabdo'pi tadvadākāśasamāśritatvānnityaḥ| anyacca| nityaḥ śabdaḥ| kasmāt| śrāvaṇatvāt| yathā śabdatvaṃ śravaṇagrāhyaṃ nityañca, tathā śabdo 'pi tasmānnityaḥ| etatpratijñāntaram|



vaiśeṣika āha| yadi nityaṃ hetunā sthāpyate, tato hetukriyatvādanityam| tasmācchabdo'nityaḥ|



viparītametatkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt ? na mayoktaṃ hetunā nityatotpanneti, api tu heturanityatāṃ vyanakti| parasyājñānātparasya pratipādanārthamasmatsthāpitaheturvyañjanaheturna tvutpattihetuḥ| bhavatkhaṇḍanamutpattihetoreva| tasmādviparītam|



kiñca pratijñākhaṇḍane bhavadukte na mayānujñāte| kuta iti cet| nāsmābhiranityateṣṭā pratītā vā| tasmādukto mayaiṣo 'rthaḥ|



etaddaśavidhaṃ viparītakhaṇḍanamucyate| viparyayeṇa taddoṣasthāpanāt| yadi khaṇḍanaṃ tattulyaṃ bhavettadā viparītakhaṇḍanāpattiḥ|



aparamasatkhaṇḍanam| mithyāvacanādasat| mithyāvacanaṃ tvayathārthamanarthakañca| etaducyate'satkhaṇḍanam| asatkhaṇḍanaṃ trividhamavarṇya(vyañjaka) khaṇḍanamarthāpatti(vyañjaka)khaṇḍanaṃ, pratidṛṣṭa(ārthavyañjaka)khaṇḍanañca|



1. avarṇya(vyañjaka)khaṇḍanam| pratyakṣaviṣaye yaddhetvanveṣaṇaṃ tadavarṇyakhaṇḍanamucyate|



anityaḥ śabdaḥ| kuta iti cet| kṛtrimatvādghaṭavaditi sthāpite prativādī prāha| asmābhirdṛṣṭaṃ yadghaṭaḥ kṛtrimaḥ| kena hetunā tadanityatānumīyate| yadi hetuṃ vinā ghaṭasya nityatā sthāpitā śabdo'pi nityetāhetumantareṇa nityo bhavet|



asattatkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt ?| yat[pūrvameva]pratītaṃ na tasya hetunā sādhanam| yadi pratīyate yadvaṭaḥ sahetuko'nityaśceti kimanityatāhetvanmveṣaṇena| tasmādasadetatkhaṇḍanam|



2. arthāpatti(vyañjaka)khaṇḍanam| vipakṣe'rthāpattiretadarthāpattikhaṇḍanam|



ātmā na vidyate| kuta iti cet| anabhivyaktatvādvandhyāputravaditi sthāpite prativādī prāha| tadetadarthādāpattiryadyabhivyaktaṃ sadanabhivyaktaṃ tvasaditi| athābhivyaktaṃ kadācitsatkadācidasa| anabhivyaktaṃ tadvat| alātacakramarīcigandharvanagaravat| tadabhivyaktam| tatsabhdāvasthāpanaṃ tvaśakyam| yadyabhivyaktasya sabhdāvasthāpanamaśakyaṃ tadānabhivyaktasyāsabhdāvapratiṣṭhāpanaṃ [sutarāma] śakyam|



asattatkhaṇḍanam| ko'sau nyāyo yenaitadarthādāpattirbhavet| yadanabhivyaktaṃ tadatyantamasaditi naitadarthādāpadyate| abhivyaktaṃ dvividhamanarthāpattirarthāpattiśca| yadi vṛṣṭirbhavati tadā meghenāpi bhavitavyam| meghe satyapi tu kadācidṛṣṭirbhavati kadācinna bhavatītyanaikāntikatā| dhūmenāgneranumānam| nātrārthādāpattiḥ| dhūme dṛṣṭe satyagniranumīyate dhūme tvasati agnerabhāvaḥ| anarthāpattiriyam| kasmāditi cet| taptāyaḥpiṇḍe lohitāṅgāre ca dhūmābhāve'pya'gneḥ sadbhāvaḥ| tasmādabhivyakteṣvarthāpattikhaṇḍanamabhūtam|



anyacca| rūpamevālātacakramarīcigandharvanagarāṇīti pratibhātīndriyabhramāccittaviparyāsena| tacca vartamāna eva sadanāgate tvasat| rūpamātramindriyabhramāccittaviparyāsena kadācit sad[vastīva] prakāśate| yaduktaṃ bhavatābhivyaktasya sattvamanaikāntikaṃ tadayuktam| kiñca bandhyāputradṛṣṭāntenāyamevārtho mayā niścīyate| yadabhivyaktisthānānna prabhraṃśate tadvastvabhāva eva| bandhyāutravat| yaccānabhivyaktisthānātprabhraṃśate naiṣo me dṛṣṭāntaḥ| aṇvākāśādiṣu tu kadācidabhivyaktiḥ kadācidanabhivyaktiḥ| bhavadarthāpattiḥ prati mayārthāpattiruktā| yadabhivyaktisthānādekāntena prabhraṃśate tadvastu sadeva | alātacakrādiṣu cakramevānaikāntikam| tacca cakrasyānaikāntikatā yat pravartanakāle sat, sthitikāle cāsat| tasmāt neyamarthāpattiḥ| anarthāpattāvarthāpattikhaṇḍanaṃ cedetat khaṇḍanamasat| punaranyathāpyarthāpattikhaṇḍanaṃ vadanti| yadi ghaṭasādharmyādanityaḥ śabda ityarthādāpannaṃ tadāsādharmyānnityaḥ| asādharmyaṃ yacchabdaḥ śravaṇagrāhyo 'mūrtaśca ghaṭastu cakṣurgrāhyo mūrtaśca| asādharmyācchabdo nityaḥ|



evaṃvidhakhaṇḍanaṃ sādharmyakhaṇḍanato 'rthāpattikhaṇḍanāviśeṣānna mayānujñātam|



3. pratidṛṣṭāntakhaṇḍanam| pratidṛṣṭāntabalāt sādhanam| etaducyate pratidṛṣṭānta (vyañjaka) khaṇḍanam|



anityaḥ śabdo'nityaghaṭasādharmyāditi cet| tadāhamapi tasya nityatāṃ vyaktīkaromi | yathā nityākāśasādharmyānnityaḥ śabdaḥ| yadi nityatāsādharmyānnityatā'prāptistadā'nityatāsādharmyātkathamanityatā|



asattatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| abhāvamātra vastvākāśamucyate| yadi sato nityavaṃ siddhastadā dṛṣṭāntaḥ sada khaṇḍanam| kintvatrāmato nityatā| ākāśamasadvastvera naitannityamanityaṃ vā vaktuṃ śakyate| asiddho dṛṣṭānta etasya khaṇḍanasya| adṛṣṭānte dṛṣṭāntatākalpanāt| tasmādasadetatkhaṇḍanam| yadi kaścinmanyate sadvastvevākāśo nityaśca| etadviparītakhaṇḍanaṃ natu satkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt ?| amūrtatvasyanaikāntikatvāt| ākāśo'mūrto nityaśca cittasukhaduḥkhecchādikantvamūrtamanityam| amūrtaḥ śabdaḥ kimākāśavannityo bhaveccittasukhādivadanityo vā| amūrtatvamanaikāntikatvādasiddho hetuḥ| tasmādviparītametkhaṇḍanam| aparaṃ ca sahetukatvācchabdo'nityaḥ| vastu sahetukañcet tadā'nityamiti jñeyaṃ ghaṭādivaditi sthāpite| prativādī prāha| asminnarthe saṃśayaḥ| kasmāditi cet| ghaṭotpādaḥ sahetuko'nityaḥ| ghaṭadhvaṃsastu sahetuko nityaḥ| śabdasya sahetukatvācchabde saṃśayotpattiḥ| sahetukaghaṭotpādavadanityaḥ sahetukaghaṭadhvaṃsavannityo vā|



asadetkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt ? yadyasaddravyaṃ nityamucyate daṇḍāghātavinaṣṭavastūnāmapi nityatāpattiḥ|



kiñca śabdo'nityaḥ| kutaḥ aindriyakatvāt| ghaṭādivaditi sthāpite| prativādī prāha| atrāpi saṃśayasambhavaḥ| yadyaindriyakaḥ sāmānyavattadā nityatāpattiḥ| yadi śabda aindriyakastadā sāmānyavannityaḥ| yadi sāmānyavanna nityo bhavet, tadā ghaṭadṛṣṭāntenānityo na bhavet|



asadetatkhaṇḍanam| kasmāt| yadi gavādisāmānyaṃ gavādivyatiriktaṃ syāttadā pṛthaktvena grāhyaṃ draṣṭavyañca sāmānyantu gavādivyatiriktaṃ pṛthaktvena gṛhyate na ca dṛśyate| tasmādanityamiti jñeyam|



anyacca| ātmā na vidyate | kuta iti cet| anabhivyaktatvāt| sarpaśravaṇavat| iti sthāpite prativādī prāha| samudrabinduparimāṇaṃ himālayagurutvañca madeva kintvanabhivyakte| ātmano'pi tathātvasambhavaḥ| sanneva kintvanabhivyaktaḥ| tasmādanabhivyaktiheturnātmābhāvaṃ sthāpayituṃ samarthaḥ|



saṅkhyāparimāṇasya sañcitādapṛthaktvam| tatparimeyasañcitamanukrameṇeyaditīyaditi ca pradarśyate| tatsaṅkhyāparimāṇaṃ smṛtidhāraṇārthaṃ, ekaṃ, daśa, sahasraṃ niyutamityādyucyate| samudrabinduparimāṇasya himālayagurutvasya cāpṛthaktvena satvābhāvāt| yadyaparakhaṇḍanaṃ tatkhaṇḍanasadṛśaṃ taddoṣasthāpanādasatkhaṇḍanamityucyate|



viruddhakhaṇḍanam| arthavisaṃvādakaṃ viruddhamityucyate, yathā prabhāndhakārau sthitigatī visaṃvādake| tadviruddhakhaṇḍanamityucyate|



viruddhakhaṇḍanaṃ trividham| anutpattikhaṇḍanaṃ, nityatākhaṇḍanaṃ, svārthaviruddhakhaṇḍanañca|



1. athānutpattikhaṇḍanam| prāgutpatteḥ prayatnanirapekṣatvānnitya ityanutpattikhaṇḍanam|



prativādī prāha| yadyanityaḥ śabdaḥ prayatna[ānantarīyaka]tvāttadā prāgutpatteraprayatna[ānantarīyaka]tvānnityaḥ|



viruddhaṃ tatkhaṇḍanam| kuta iti cet| utpatteḥ pūrvaṃ śabdo'sanneva| asaṃścet, kathaṃ nityaḥ| yadi kaścidvadedvandhyāputraḥ kṛṣṇo bandhyāputraḥ śveta iti tadapi siddham bhavet| yadyasannityatānupapattiḥ| yadi nityo'sattānupapattiḥ| asannityamiti svato viruddham| etadasatkhaṇḍaneṣvarthāpattisamam| kasmāt| asatkhaṇḍanāt| śabdo 'nityaḥ prayatna[ānantarīyakatvā]diti sthāpita etadarthādāpadyate| aprayatna[ānantarīya]katvānnitya iti tadasat| kutaḥ| prayatna[ānantarīya] kaṃ trividham, nityamanityamasacca| nityamākāśavat| anityaṃ vidyudādivat| asadākāśakusumāditiva| etatritayamaprayatna[ānantarīya] kaṃ bhavatā tvekena prakāreṇa nityamiti manyate| tasmādasat|



2. nityatākhaṇḍanam| nityamanityabhāvānnityaḥ śabdaḥ| etannityatākhaṇḍanamucyate|



prativādī prāha| anitye nityamanityatā, sarvadharmāṇāṃ svabhāvānirāsāt| anitye nityamanityatvabhāvānnityatā siddhā|



viruddhametat| kasmāt| yadyanityaṃ nityatālābhaḥ katham| yadi kaścidvadedandhakāre prabhāstīti tadvacanamapi siddhaṃ bhavet| tannaiveti cettato bhavatkhaṇḍanamapi viruddhamasacca| kasmāditi cet| anityateti pṛthagdharmo'nityena na sambaddhaḥ yo nityo mantavyaḥ| anityatā naiva pṛthagbhāvaḥ| yadyanutpannaṃ vastūtpattiṃ labhata utpannantu vinaśyati tato'nityamityucyate| anityamasaditi cedyadanityena nityaṃ śthāpitaṃ tasyāpyasattāprasaṅgaḥ|



3. svārthaviruddham| yadi parārthasvaṇḍane svārthahānistadā tatsvārthaviruddhakhaṇḍanamucyate|



anityaḥ śabdaḥ kṛtakatvādaṅkurādivaditi sthāpite| prativādī prāha| yadi heturanityatāṃ prāpnoti tadā'nityatātulyaḥ| yadyanityatāṃ na prāpnoti tadānityatāsādhanāsamarthaḥ| tasmādasiddho heturiti|



yadi tāvattava khaṇḍanaṃ matpratijñāṃ prāpnoti, matpratijñātulyatve'smadarthakhaṇḍanāsamartham| atha na matpratijñāṃ prāpnoti tathāpyasmadarthakhaṇḍanāsamartham| tasmādbhavatkhaṇḍane bhavadarthahāniḥ|



prativādī punarāha| yadi hetuḥ pūrvaṃ pratijñā tu paścāt, tadā pratijñā'bhāve sa kasya hetuḥ| atha pratijñā pūrvaṃ hetustu paścāttadā, siddhāyāṃ pratijñāyāṃ kiṃ hetunetyeṣo 'pyasiddho hetuḥ|



yadi bhavatkhaṇḍanaṃ pūrvamasmatpratijñā tu paścādasmadarthābhāve kiṃ bhavatā khaṇḍyate| yadyasmatpratijñā pūrvaṃ bhavatkhaṇḍanaṃ tu paścāttadāsmatpratijñāyāṃ sthāpitāyāṃ kiṃ bhavatkhaṇḍanena| bhavānasmatkhaṇḍanānujñānādasmatkhaṇḍanopādānena mā khaṇḍayatīti cettadayuktam| kasmāditi cet| mayā prakaṭitaṃ yadbhavatkhaṇḍanaṃ bhavadarthameva pratiṣedhati na tu bhavatkhaṇḍanamavalambyāsmadartho pratiṣṭhāpitaḥ| aparakhaṇḍane tatkhaṇḍanatulye sati taddoṣapratiṣṭhāpanaṃ viruddhakhaṇḍanamucyate|



samyakkhaṇḍanaṃ pañcavidham| iṣṭārthadūṣaṇam, aniṣṭārthavyaktiḥ, prasaṅgavyaktiḥ, viṣamārthavyaktiḥ, marvānyāyasiddhilābhavyaktiḥ|



prativādī prāha| astyātmā saṃghātasya parārthatvāt| yathā śayanāsanādisaṃghātaḥ parārthaḥ| cakṣurādīndriyasaṃghāto 'pi parārthaḥ| parastvātmā| tasmādastyātmeti jñātam|



nāstyātmā| kuta iti cet| ekāntānabhivyaktatvāt| yadekāntānabhivyaktaṃ tadasadeva| yathānīśvarapuruṣasya dvitīyo mūrdhā| dvitīyo mūrdhā rūpagandhādimūrdhākārato na pṛthak mantavyaḥ| tasmādasan| ātmano'pi tathātvasambhavaḥ| cakṣurādīndriyeṣu na hi sa pṛthagabhivyaktaḥ| tasmādasan| astyātmeti cettadayuktam| tadiṣṭadūṣaṇamucyate|



yadi punarbhavān vadati yadātmalakṣaṇamaviśeṣyaṃ, sa tu sanniti tadā dvitīyo mūrdhaviśeṣyo'pi sanneva bhavet| dvitīyo mūrdhā sanniti bhavatā cenna pratipādyate tadātmanyapi tathā pratipattavyam| iyamucyate 'niṣṭārthavyaktiḥ|



yadi bhavanmate ubhau tulyamevāviśeṣyau| nyāyāsamāśrayāccātmā sanna punardvitīyo mūrdhā| tadāhamapi nyāyāsamaśrayātsanneva dvitīyo mūrdhā na tvātmeti cedvadeyameṣo'rthaḥ sidvo bhavet| athāsmadartho na siddho bhavadartho'pi na sidva ityucyate prasaṅgavyaktiḥ|



anyacca| ātmā dvitīya iva mūrdhāviśeṣyaḥ na tvasanniti cettadā vaiṣamyadoṣo bhavanmūrdhyāpatet| yadi kaścidvadedvandhyāputraḥ sālaṅkāro bandhyāputro niralaṅkāra iti tadapi siddhaṃ bhavet| yadi kaścidevaṃ vadettadā vaiṣamyadoṣāpattiḥ| bhavato'pi tathātvasambhavaḥ| iyaṃ vaiṣamyadoṣavyaktiḥ| athocyate nyāyāsamāśrayānniyatamevāstyātmā, nyāyāsamāśrayānniyatameva nāsti dvitīyo mūrdheti siddhaṃ ca tadvacanamiti tadā mūrkhabālānyāyavacanānyapi sidhyeyuryathākāśo dṛśyaḥ, śītolo'gniḥ, grāhyoḥ vāyurityādi mūrkhavacanāninyāyāsamāśritānyapi bhavatsādhyavat siddhāni bhaveyuḥ| asiddhāni cedbhavadartho'pyevaṃ syāt| iyamucyate sarvānyāyasiddhilābhavyaktiḥ||



iti dvitīyaṃ prakaraṇam|
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