Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon

Aṣṭamaṃ prakaraṇam

Technical Details
  • Text Version:
    Romanized
  • Input Personnel:
    DSBC Staff
  • Input Date:
    2008
  • Proof Reader:
    Milan Shakya
  • Supplier:
    Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods
  • Sponsor:
    University of the West
Parallel Devanāgarī version

अष्टमं प्रकरणम्

karmakārakaparīkṣā aṣṭamaṃ prakaraṇam |

atrāha - vidyanta eva saṃskṛtasvabhāvato vijñānādayaḥ saṃskṛtā dharmāḥ, taddhetukakarmakāraka- sadbhāvāt | uktaṃ hi bhagavatā -

avidyānugato'yaṃ bhikṣavaḥ puruṣapudgalaḥ puṇyānapi saṃskārānabhisaṃskaroti, apuṇyānapi, āniñjayānapi saṃskārānabhisaṃskaroti |

ityādinā karmaṇāṃ kārako vyapadiṣṭaḥ, tatkarmaphalaṃ ca vijñānādikamupadiṣṭam | yasya ca kārako'sti, tadasti, tadyathā ghaṭaḥ | yannāsti, na tasya kārakaḥ, tadyathā kūrmaromaprāvārasyeti | ucyate | syādvijñānādikaṃ saṃskṛtaṃ yadi tasya niṣpādakakarmakārakau syātām | na tu staḥ | yasmāt -

sadbhūtaḥ kārakaḥ karma sadbhūtaṃ na karotyayam |
kārako nāpyasadbhūtaḥ karmāsadbhūtamīhate ||1||

tatra karotīti kārakaḥ kartā | kurvāṇasyaiva kiṃcit kārakavyapadeśo nākurvāṇasya | tacca karaṇaṃ sadbhūtasya vā kartuḥ parikalpyeta, asadbhūtasya vā, sadasadbhūtasya vā? kriyate iti karma karturīpsitatamam | tadapi trividham, sadbhūtamasadbhūtaṃ sadasadbhūtaṃ ca | tatra sadbhūtaḥ kārakaḥ kriyāyuktaḥ sadbhūtaṃ kriyāyuktaṃ karma na karotītyekā pratijñā | idānīmasadbhūto'pi kriyākārakarahito'sadbhutaṃ kriyārahitaṃ karma na karotītyaparā pratijñā ||1||

tatrādyāṃ prasādhayitumāha -

sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti karma ca syādakartṛkam |

kriyānibandhanatvātkārakavyapadeśasya, karoti kriyāyukta eva kaścitsadbhūtaḥ kārakavyapadeśaṃ labhate, tataśca tasyaivaṃvidhasya kriyāhetukalabdhakārakavyapadeśasya aparā kriyā nāsti yayā karma kuryāt | kriyābhāvācca yadā kārakaḥ karma na karoti, tadā kārakanirapekṣamakartṛkaṃ karma syāt | na cākartṛkaṃ karma saṃbhavati bandhyāsūnoriva ghaṭakaraṇamiti | evaṃ tāvat

sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti karma ca syādakartṛkam |

iti doṣaprasaṅgāt sadbhūtaḥ kārakaḥ karma na karoti |

idānīṃ sadbhūtamapi karma kārako na karotīti pratipādayannāha -
sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti kartā ca syādakarmakaḥ ||2||

sadbhūtaṃ nāma karma kriyāyuktam | tasyedānīṃ kriyānibandhanalabdhakarmavyapadeśasya aparā kriyā nāsti yayā karma kriyeteti | evaṃ tāvatsadbhūtasya karmaṇaḥ kriyā nāsti | yadā nāsti parā kriyā, tadā kārakastatsadbhūtaṃ karma naiva karoti | yadā ca na karoti karmaṇo dvitīyakriyābhāvāt, tadā akarmaka eva avidyamānakarmaka eva tasya karmaṇaḥ kārakaḥ syāt | na caitadyaktam | na hi akṛtānantaryakarmaṇaḥ ānantaryakarmakārakatvaṃ dṛṣṭamiti ||2||

evaṃ sadbhūtaḥ kārakaḥ sadbhūtaṃ karma na karoti iti saṃsādhya idānīṃ yathā asadbhūtamapi karma asadbhūtaḥ kārako na karoti tathā pratipādayannāha -

karoti yadyasadbhūto'sadbhūtaṃ karma kārakaḥ |
ahetukaṃ bhavetkarma kartā cāhetuko bhavet ||3||

asadbhūtaḥ kārako yaḥ kriyārahitaḥ | kriyā ca kārakavyapadeśe heturiti kriyārahita kārako'pi nirhetukaḥ syāt | karmāpyasadbhūtaṃ nirhetukaṃ syāt ||3||

sati ca ahetukavādābhyupagame kāryaṃ ca kāraṇaṃ ca sarvamapoditaṃ syādityāha -
hetāvasati kāryaṃ ca kāraṇaṃ ca na vidyate |

satyeva hi hetorabhyupagame hetunā yanniṣpādyate tat kāryam, tasya ca yo niṣpādakaḥ tatkāraṇamiti yujyate | tadyathā ghaṭasya mṛd hetuḥ, ghaṭaḥ kāryam, tasya ca cakrādayaḥ sahakārikāraṇam | ahetukavādābhyupagame tu hetvanapekṣatvānmaṇḍūkajaṭāśiromaṇimayaghaṭavanna syādayaṃ ghaṭaḥ | asati ghaṭe kutastatkāraṇamiti | evam -

hetāvasati kāryaṃ ca kāraṇaṃ ca na vidyate |

tataśca -

tadabhāve kriyā kartā karaṇaṃ ca na vidyate ||4||

tadabhāve kāryakāraṇabhāve, kiṃ kurvāṇasya kriyā saṃbhavet, kasyāṃ vā kriyāyāṃ kumbhakārasya svātantryātkartṛtvaṃ syāt? na cāpi mṛdāṃ tādātmyapravṛttyā sādhakatamatvena karaṇatvaṃ yujyata iti evaṃ tāvat -

tadabhāve kriyā kartā karaṇaṃ ca na vidyate ||

tataśca-
dharmādharmau na vidyete kriyādīnāmasaṃbhave |

iha yadā devadattaḥ prāṇātipātaviratikriyāsvātantryātkartā san svatantrakāryeṇa karaṇa bhūtena prāṇātipātaviratikriyāṃ karoti, tadāsya dharma upajāyate | evaṃ daśasvapi kuśaleṣu karmapatheṣu kuśalakriyāniṣpādyeṣu ratnatrayamātāpitṛtadanyapūjyapūjādilakṣaṇeṣu ca kuśaladharmaprārambheṣu yojyam | evamadharme'pi prāṇātipātādilakṣaṇe kuśalaviparyayeṇa kriyākartṛkaraṇānāmabhāve sati karmaṇāmabhāvaprasaṅga udbhāvanīyaḥ ||

yadā caivaṃ dharmādharmau na saṃbhavataḥ, tadā tatphalamapi nāstyeveti pratipādayannāha -

dharme cāsatyadharme ca phalaṃ tajjaṃ na vidyate ||5||

dharmādharmajanitamiṣṭāniṣṭaphalaṃ sugatidurgatyordharmādharmayorabhāve sati na syāt ||5||

tataśca -
phale'sati na mokṣāya na svargāyopapadyate |
mārgaḥ

yadi hi phalamiṣṭāniṣṭaṃ syāta, syāllaukikasya mārgasya dhyānārūpyasamādhisamāpattilakṣaṇaṃ svargaḥ, tadānīṃ tadarthaṃ laukikamārgabhāvanā jyāyasī syāt, kugatigamanakarmapathaviratisāphalyaṃ ca syāt | yadi ca mokṣalakṣaṇaṃ nirvāṇaṃ phalaṃ syāt, tadartha lokottarāryāṣṭāṅgamārgabhāvanāsāphalyaṃ syāt | yadā tu phalaṃ nāsti, tadā -

phale'sati na mokṣāya na svargāyopapadyate |
mārgaḥ |
kiṃ ca | evaṃ phalābhāve sati-

sarvakriyāṇāṃ ca nairarthakyaṃ prasajyate ||6||

yā api hyetāḥ kṛṣivāṇijyabala (bhṛti ?) gatādikāḥ kriyāḥ phalārtha prārabhyante, tā api sarvāḥ phalābhāve sati nopapadyanta iti | evaṃ sarvakriyāṇāṃ nairarthakyaṃ prasajyate bhavatām | na cāsāṃ nairarthakyam | tasmānniravaśeṣadoṣaviṣavṛkṣākarabhūto'yaṃ svargāpavargāpavādī narakādimahāpāya prapātavartanahetuḥ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭahetupadārthavirodhīti kṛtvā, saddhiḥ asadbhūtaḥ kārako'sadbhūtaṃ karma karotīti pakṣo nikṛṣṭa eveti tyājyaḥ ||6||

tadevaṃ pratijñādvayaṃ saṃsādhya idānīmubhayarūpaḥ kārakaḥ, ubhayarūpamapi karma na karotītyāha -

kārakaḥ sadasadbhūtaḥ sadasatkurute na tat |
tatra yadetadasadbhūtaṃ karma kriyāyuktamakriyāyuktaṃ ca, tat sadasadbhūtaḥ kārako na karotīti | yasmāt -

parasparaviruddhaṃ hi saccāsaccaikataḥ kutaḥ ||7||

ekaḥ padārthaḥ ekasmin kāle kriyāyuktaścākriyāyuktaśceti na yujyata evaitat | tataśca sadasadbhūto'pi kārakaḥ sadasadbhūtaṃ karma na karoti, avidyamānatvādityabhiprāyaḥ ||7||

evaṃ same pakṣe dūṣaṇamudbhāvya viṣamapakṣasyāpi nirācikīrṣayā āha -

satā ca kriyate nāsannāsatā kriyate ca sat |
kartrā

satā sadbhūtena tāvatkartrā kriyāyuktena asadbhūtamasadakriyāyuktaṃ karma na kriyate | yasmāt -
sarve prasajyante doṣāstatra ta eva hi ||8||

sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti karma ca syādakartṛkam |

ityevaṃ tāvat sadbhūtaḥ kārakaḥ karma na karoti, nāpyasadbhūtaṃ karma kriyate | asadbhūtaṃ hi karma ahetukaṃ bhavet | tataśca -

hetāvasati kāryaṃ ca kāraṇaṃ ca na vidyate ||

ityādinā sarvaṃ dūṣaṇamāpadyate | tasmātpūrvoktaireva hetubhirdūṣitatvādasya viṣamapakṣasya na punarhetorupādānamanuṣṭhīyate | yathā caitat satā kartrā asatkarma na kriyate iti pratipāditam, evamasatā kartrā akriyāyuktena satkarma na kriyate iti vyākhyeyamuktapathānusāreṇa ||8||

evaṃ tāvadviṣamapakṣe ekaikapadaparāmarśena dūṣaṇamabhidhāya idānīmekaikasya padasya padadvaya parāmarśena dūṣaṇābhidhānamāha -

nāsadbhūtaṃ na sadbhūtaḥ sadasadbhūtameva vā |
karoti kārakaḥ karma pūrvoktaireva hetubhiḥ ||9||

sa kārakaḥ sadbhūtaḥ asadbhūtaṃ karma sadasadbhūtameva vā na karotīti | kathamityāha - pūrvoktaireva hetubhiriti | tatra 'sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti' ityādinā sadbhūtaḥ kārako na karoti | asadbhūtamapi karma na kriyate' ahetukaṃ bhavetkarma ' 'hetāvasati kāryaṃ ca ' ityādinā vihitadoṣāt | sadasadbhūtamapi karma na kriyate -

parasparaviruddhaṃ hi saccāsaccaikataḥ kutaḥ

iti vacanāt | evaṃ tāvatsadbhūtaḥ kārako'sadbhūtaṃ sadasadbhutaṃ ca karma na karoti ||9||

idānīmasadbhūto'pi kārakaḥ sadbhūtaṃ karma sadasadbhūtaṃ ca karma na karotītyāha -
nāsadbhūto'pi sadbhūtaṃ sadasadbhūtameva vā |
karoti kārakaḥ karma pūrvoktaireva hetubhiḥ ||10||

asadbhūtaḥ kārako nirhetuko bhavet | ' hetāvasati kāryaṃ ca ' ityādinā uktadoṣādasadbhūtaḥ kārako na karoti |

sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti kartā ca syādakarmakaḥ |
iti prasaṅgāt sadbhūtaṃ karma na kriyate | sadasadbhūtamapi karma na kriyate, parasparaviruddhaṃ hi saccāsaccaikataḥ kutaḥ |

iti vacanāt ||10||

idānīṃ sadasadbhūto'pi kārakaḥ ekaika evobhayarūpaḥ san yathā sadbhūtamasadbhūtaṃ ca bhinnasaṃketaṃ karma na karoti tathā pratipādayannāha -

karoti sadasadbhūto na sannāsacca kārakaḥ |
karma tattu vijānīyātpūrvoktaireva hetubhiḥ ||11||

parasparaviruddhaṃ hi saccāsaccaikataḥ kutaḥ |
iti vacanātsadasadbhūtaḥ kārako na karoti |

sadbhūtasya kriyā nāsti kartā ca syādakarmakaḥ |

iti prasaṅgātsadbhūtaṃ karma na kriyate | asadbhūtamapi karma ahetukaṃ 'hetāvasati kārya ca' ityādinoktadoṣānna kriyate | yataścaivaṃ samapakṣeṣu viṣamapakṣeṣu ca kartuḥ karmaṇaśca sarvathā siddhirayuktā, tasmādyaduktaṃ vidyanta eva vijñānādayaḥ saṃskṛtā dharmāḥ saṃskṛtasvabhāvāḥ taddhetukakarmakārakasadbhāvāditi, tadayuktam ||

atrāha - kimavadhāritametadbhavatā na santi bhāvā iti? na hi | bhavatastu sasvabhāva- vādinaḥ svabhāvasya bhāvānāṃ vaidhuryātsarvabhāvāpavādaḥ saṃbhāvyate | vayaṃ tu pratītyotpannatvātsarvabhāvānāṃ svabhāvamevanopalabhāmahe, tatkasyāpavādaṃ kariṣyāmaḥ? yathoktamāryaratnāvalyām -

marīci toyamityetaditi matvāgato'tra san |
yadi nāstīti tattoyaṃ gṛhṇīyānmūḍha eva saḥ ||

marīcipratimaṃ lokamevamastīti gṛhṇataḥ |
nāstīti cāpi moho'yaṃ sati mohe na mucyate ||
ajñānakalpitaṃ pūrvaṃ paścāttatvārthanirṇaye |
yadā na labhate bhāvamevābhāvastadā kuha || iti ||11||

tadevaṃ niḥsvabhāvānāṃ sarvabhāvānāṃ kuto yathoktaprakārasiddhiḥ? tasmāllaukikaṃ viparyāsa- mabhyupetya sāṃvṛtānāṃ padārthānāṃ marīcikājalakalpānāmidaṃpratyayatāmātrābhyupagamenaiva prasiddhirnānyene tyāha -

pratītya kārakaḥ karma taṃ pratītya ca kārakam |
karma pravartate, nānyatpaśyāmaḥ siddhikāraṇam ||12||

iha akurvāṇasya karmanirapekṣasya kārakatvābhāvāt karmāpekṣya kārakasya kārakatvaṃ bhavati | kārakeṇa cākriyamāṇasya kasyacitkarmatvābhāvāt kriyamāṇasyaiva karmavyapadeśāt, taṃ kārakaṃ pratītya karma pravartate ityevaṃ karmakārakayoḥ parasparāpekṣikīṃ siddhiṃ muktvā nānyatsiddhikāraṇaṃ paśyāmaḥ ||12||

yathā ca karmakārakayoḥ parasparāpekṣikī siddhiḥ, evamanyeṣāmapi bhāvānāmityatidiśannāha -

evaṃ vidyādupādānaṃ vyutsargāditi karmaṇaḥ |
kartuśca

evamityanena anantarāṃ karmakārakaprajñaptiṃ darśayati | upāttirupādānam | anena copātti kriyāmāha | sā ca svasādhanaṃ kartāramupādātāraṃ karma copādānaṃ saṃnidhāpayati | tayośca upādeyopā dātroḥ parasparāpekṣayoḥ karmakārakavadeva siddhirna svābhāvikī | kasmātpunaḥ svābhāvikī na bhavati ityāha - vyutsargāditi karmaṇaḥ, kartuśceti | itiśabdo hetuparāmarśī | vyutsargo vyudāsaḥ | tataśca ayamartha upapadyate - yaireva hetubhiḥ karmaṇaśca vyutsargo'smābhiruktaḥ , taireva hetubhiḥ upādātā upādeyaṃ ca pratiṣiddhaṃ veditavyam | na ca kevalamanayoranyonyāpekṣikī siddhiḥ katurśca karmaṇaśca pratiṣedhenāvaseyā, api ca

karmakartṛbhyāṃ śeṣān bhāvān vibhāvayet ||13||

prājña iti vākyaśeṣaḥ | karmakārakopādeyopādātṛvyatiriktā ye'nye bhāvā janyajanaka gantṛgamanadraṣṭavyadarśanalakṣyalakṣaṇotpādyotpādakāḥ, tathā avayavāvayaviguṇaguṇipramāṇaprameyādayo niravaśeṣā bhāvāḥ, teṣāṃ kartṛkarmavicāreṇa svabhāvato'stitvaṃ pratiṣidhya parasparāpekṣikīmeva siddhi prājño nirmumukṣurjātijarāmaraṇādibandhanebhyo mokṣāya vibhāvayet ||

eṣāṃ ca vistareṇa vicāro madhyamakāvatārādibhyo'vaseyaḥ ||

nanu ca śeṣān bhāvān vibhāvayedityanenaiva upādānopādānnoradhigatatvādupādānopādānaṃ punarayuktam | satyametat | tathāpi tattvavicāre prādhānyajñāpanārthamupādānopādātrobhedenopādānam, tathā hi uttareṣu prakaraṇeṣu bhūyasā anayoreva vicāro bhaviṣyatīti | ata evoktaṃ bhagavatā āryopāliparipṛcchāyām -

bhaya darśita nairayikaṃ me sattvasahasra savejita naike |
na ca vidyati kaściha sattva yo cyutu gacchati ghoramapāyam ||
na ca kāraku kāraṇaṃ santi yehi kṛtā asitomaraśastrāḥ |
kalpavaśena tu paśyati tatra kāyi patanti apāyita śastrāḥ ||
citramanorama sajjitapuṣpāḥ svarṇavimāna jalanti manojñāḥ |
teṣvapi kāraku nāstiha kaści te'pi ca sthāpita kalpavaśena ||
kalpavaśena vikalpitu lokaḥ saṃjñagaheṇa vikalpitu bālaḥ |
so ca gaho agaho asabhūto māyamarīcisamā hi vikalpāḥ ||iti || 13||

ityācāryacandrakīrtipādoparacitāyāṃ prasannapadāyāṃ madhyamakavṛttau
karmakārakaparīkṣā nāma aṣṭamaṃ prakaraṇam ||
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